Species of the Anopheles mosquito can be found throughout the world in temperate, subtropical, and tropical areas.
The Anopheles mosquito is the vector for malaria, which is caused by Plasmodium spp. parasites, with P. falciparum and vivax malaria being responsible for most of the mortality worldwide. While these parasites have been largely eradicated throughout much of the temperate zone (although risk remains due to the proliferation of the Anopheles spp. vector), malaria continues to be an enormous burden to tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa.
Anopheles mosquito larvae can be found in a wide variety of habitats. Globally, Anopheles species larval ecology is quite complex. The key vector for malaria in Africa is the Anopheles gambiae complex. This group prefers open water pools with little vegetation, but has adapted to other habitats. In Brazil, Anopheles darlingi is considered the main vector, as it is considered anthropophilic, it makes possible the spread of the disease mainly in the northern region of the country.